Connecticut, the southernmost of the Eastern United States, is bounded north by Massachusetts, east by Rhode Island, south by Long Island Sound, and west by New York. It is between 41° and 42° 2' north latitude, and 71° 20' and 73° 15' west longitude, and between 3° 16' and 5° 11' east longitude from west. It contains 4,674 square miles, or 2,991,360 acres.

The population in 1790 was 237,946; in 1800, 251,002; in 1810, 261,942; in 1820, 275,248; in 1830, 297,711; in 1840, 300,015. Of these 148,300 were white males, 153,556 white females, 3,881 free colored males, 4,214 free colored females. Employed in agriculture, 56,955; in commerce, 2,743; manufactures and trades, 27,932; navigating the ocean, 2,700; navigating the rivers, &c, 431; learned professions and engineers, 1,697.

The capitals are Hartford, on the Connecticut river, at the head of sloop navigation, 50 miles from its mouth; and New Haven, on a bay which sets up 4 miles from Long Island Sound.

The state is divided into 8 counties, which, with their population in 1840, and their capitals, were as follows:

County, Population, Capital

Fairfield, 49,917, Fairfield and Danbury New Haven, 49,532, New Haven
Hartford, 55,629, Hartford New London, 44,463, New London and Norwich
Litchfield, 40,448, Litchfield Tolland, 17,980, Tolland
Middlesex, 24,879, Middletown Windham, 28,089, Brooklyn

These counties are divided into 144 cities and townships.

Connecticut is in general a hilly country, but the hills are not of great elevation. In passing over the state east and west they occur .... Continued

Source: A Complete Descriptive And Statistical Gazetteer Of The United States Of America, By Daniel Haskel, A. M and J. Calvin Smith, Published By Sherman & Smith, 1843

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